March 6, 2020 at 8:24 pm

Obesity is characterized by excess adipose tissue and defined by using the body mass index (BMI) based on world heath organization definitions (BMI > 30). Obesity is classified into mild (30-34.9), moderate (35-39.9), and severe (40 or greater). While we have documentation of obesity prior to the current millennium, obesity has become increasingly prevalent. During the last census in 2010, the CDC reported that 36% of American adults and 17% of American children were obese.

While we know that metabolic disease arises in adipose tissue, the link between obesity and metabolic disease is still not well understood, being complex and multifactorial. Obesity is associated with multiple medical comorbidities including metabolic disorder, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis, sleep apnea, and depression. While the first line of treatment for obesity is lifestyle modifications—such as dieting and exercise—by far the most efficacious is bariatric surgery.

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