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Plantar Fasciitis
Angela Jones, MD
Plantar fasciitis is a painful musculoskeletal condition involving severe pain under the pad of the heel. Patients often complain the most about pain when they first get up in the... Continue Reading
 
Elbow Arthritis
Alex Yevtukh, MD
Elbow arthritis can be caused by a number of conditions. It is most commonly caused by “wear and tear”, or osteoarthritis. This usually develops over a long time, up to... Continue Reading
 
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
Alex Yevtukh, MD
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome refers to chronic back pain that occurs greater than six months after a spine surgery. In other words, it’s when a spine surgery does not achieve... Continue Reading
 
Pierre Robin/Micrognathia
Alex Sailon, MD
Pierre Robin sequence (also known as Pierre Robin syndrome) is a condition where babies are born witha small lower jaw and a tongue that falls into the back of the... Continue Reading
 
Bunion Deformity of Foot
Angela Jones, MD
Bunion deformity is the term for a bump that forms on the inner border of the large joint in the great toe. Along with the bump, the great toe angles... Continue Reading
 
Osteochondral Dissecans (OCD)
Alex Yevtukh, MD
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a condition that can develop in a joint, most commonly in the knee, ankle, and elbow. It occurs when a small piece of joint surface begins... Continue Reading
 
Bradycardia, Heart Block
Baran Kilical MD
The ancient Greeks called the heart beat or pulse the “sphygmos.” It was around 1580 when Geronimo Mercuriale put together the idea that passing out and low heart rates were... Continue Reading
 
Atrial Fibrillation (AFib)
Baran Kilical MD
Atrial fibrillation is due to abnormal chaotic electrical activity in the upper chambers of the heart known as atria. It is the most common heart rhythm disturbance. While it is... Continue Reading
 
Hemorrhoids
Uchechi Wosu MD
Hemorrhoids are extremely common lesions within the anorectal area.  They are enlarged veins also known as variceal dilations that occur as a result of  persistently elevated pressure within the hemorrhoidal... Continue Reading
 
Cardiovascular Disease
Randall Wolf, MD, FACS, FACC
Cardiovascular disease refers to a range of conditions that affect your heart. This could include, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, congenital heart defects, or heart valve disease. Coronary Artery Disease is... Continue Reading
 
Radial Head Fractures
Anthony Kamson DO
Radial head fractures are a one of the multiple injuries that can occur in the upper extremity. Of note, radial head fractures are the most common fracture seen in the... Continue Reading
 
Bulging Disc Herniation (Contained Disc Herniation)
AJ Rastogi, MD
The spine is composed of a series of bones called the vertebrae. Each of these bones is connected by a disc, made of a tough outer layer, called the annulus,... Continue Reading
 
Olecranon Fractures
Anthony Kamson DO
Olecranon fractures are one of the more common injuries that occur in the upper extremity. The most likely mechanisms that leads to these fractures are from indirect trauma to the... Continue Reading
 
Fractures
Anthony Kamson DO
Fractures occur in all individuals regardless of age. Those who are older and have less dense bone (osteoporosis) are more likely to suffer from a fracture. In youngers patients, fractures... Continue Reading
 
Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)
Angela Jones, MD
Tennis Elbow is a musculoskeletal condition characterized by pain on the outside part of the elbow. The painful area is called the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and is the... Continue Reading
 
Early Onset and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
Angela Jones, MD
Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis is the term for excess curvature of the spine that occurs in children over age 10 years, while Early Onset Scoliosis affects children less than 10 years... Continue Reading
 
Ventricular Tachycardia (Sudden Cardiac Death)
Baran Kilical MD
Sudden cardiac death is most commonly secondary to heart rhythm disturbances (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation). We all have some small amount of risk of sudden cardiac death, but those... Continue Reading
 
Thumb Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) Joint Sprain (Gamekeeper’s/ Skier’s Thumb)
Angela Jones, MD
Gamekeeper’s/ Skier’s thumb is an injury to a particular ligament in the thumb at the level of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint. The injured structure is the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL)... Continue Reading
 
Infant Ear Deformities
Alex Sailon, MD
Ear deformities in infants refer to irregularly shaped ears without any functional, hearing issues. It is estimated that anywhere between 15-29% of newborns will have some degree of ear deformity.... Continue Reading
 
Dupuytren’s Disease
Angela Jones, MD
Dupuytren’s disease (also called Dupuytren’s contracture or palmar fibromatosis) is a condition that affects the tissue under the skin of the palms of the hand. This tissue, called the palmar... Continue Reading
 
Postoperative Pain
Alex Sailon, MD
Pain after surgery, also known as postoperative pain, is an expected occurrence. The severity, duration, and nature of the pain depend on the type of procedure as well as many... Continue Reading
 
Thumb CMC Joint Arthritis
Angela Jones, MD
The thumb CMC joint is at the bottom or base of the thumb and is also called the basilar joint. This joint is very commonly affected by arthritis. Women are... Continue Reading
 
Keloid Scars – Hypertrophic
Alex Sailon, MD
The type of scar one forms has a strong genetic component. As a result, poor scarring can result despite a surgeon’s best efforts. Certain areas of the body are more... Continue Reading
 
Thyroid Eye Disease
Uchechi Wosu MD
Exophthalmos is an ocular condition in people with thyroid disease, most notably Grave’s disease. It occurs when the immune system attacks the tissue behind the eye.  This results in swelling... Continue Reading
 
Clavicle Fractures
Anthony Kamson DO
Clavicle fractures are a fairly common injury that occurs in the upper extremity. These fractures are usually seen following direct trauma to the clavicle (collarbone) or from a fall onto... Continue Reading
 
Knee Osteoarthritis
Anthony Kamson DO
Knee osteoarthritis is a common condition that is due to degenerative changes of the articular cartilage. The disease is associated with “wear and tear” of the knee joint over multiple... Continue Reading
 
Frey Syndrome
Andrew Biello, MD
Frey syndrome, also knowing gustatory sweating, is classically described in patients after parotidectomy surgery. It occurs as a result of aberrant reinnervation of the superficial skin sweat glands by the... Continue Reading
 
Submental Fat
Sarenthia Epps, MD
Submental fat, commonly known as double chin, is a common condition that occurs when a layer of fat forms over time below your chin. Multiple factors can contribute to the... Continue Reading
 
Leg Length Discrepancy
Michael Eckhoff, MD
Limb length discrepancy is a common occurrence in the general population with many people being completely asymptomatic. It is generally accepted that up to 1 inch of difference in one... Continue Reading
 
Degenerative Disc Disease
Michael Eckhoff, MD
Degenerative disc disease is the spine equivalent of osteoarthritis. With wear-and-tear the disc that sits between vertebra in the spine starts to breakdown, shrink, and can become painful. Most often... Continue Reading
 
Vertebral Compression Fracture
Austin Fares, MD
Vertebral compression fractures occur when the vertebral body of the spine collapses, which can lead to severe pain, deformity, and loss of height. These fractures are particularly seen in elderly... Continue Reading
 
Idiopathic Scoliosis
Austin Fares, MD
Idiopathic scoliosis, or abnormal spine curvature, typically develops in young, female individuals greater than 10 years old. In young children with onset before 10 years old they are at an... Continue Reading
 
Herniated Vertebral Disc
Austin Fares, MD
A herniated disc, also known as a bulged, slipped, or prolapsed disc is when one of the cushion-like pads between the vertebrae moves out of position and presses on the... Continue Reading
 
Degenerative Spondylolisthesis
Austin Fares, MD
Degenerative spondylolisthesis is a wear and tear phenomenon which describes the condition of one vertebrae slipping over the vertebrae below. This condition more commonly affects the lumbar spine (low back)... Continue Reading
 
Cervical Myelopathy
Austin Fares, MD
Cervical myelopathy is a form of spinal cord compression that occurs in the neck (cervical) region of the spine. The cervical spine consists of 7 bony vertebrae with fibrous discs... Continue Reading
 
Cervical Spine Stenosis
Michael Eckhoff, MD
Cervical spinal stenosis is a diagnosis that means the spinal canal in the neck is decreasing in area or getting tight. This can cause impingement onto the spinal cord itself... Continue Reading
 
Skin Burns
John Scanaliato, MD
Skin burns can be catastrophic injuries, and often require multiple debridements and surgeries to achieve eventual skin regeneration. While partial-thickness burns are often managed with local wound care and dressings,... Continue Reading
 
Compartment Syndrome
John Scanaliato, MD
Compartment syndrome is one of the few true orthopaedic emergencies. Characterized by increased osseofascial compartment pressures leading to subsequent decreased perfusion and blood flow, this condition can lead to rapid... Continue Reading
 
Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections (NSTI)
John Scanaliato, MD
Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections (also known as necrotizing fasciitis) are deadly, rapidly progressive, soft-tissue infections which, if untreated, are universally fatal. Due to the rate of expansion, and often unrealized... Continue Reading
 
Diabetic Foot Ulcer
John Scanaliato, MD
Foot ulcerations in the setting of diabetes are difficult to manage conditions which can often lead to foot and/or leg amputation. Due to profound neurological and microvascular damage, individuals with... Continue Reading
 
Open Fracture
John Scanaliato, MD
Open fractures can be a catastrophic injury. Often associated with high-energy injury mechanisms, with substantial morbidity and mortality, these fractures are among the most serious treated by orthopaedic surgeons. While... Continue Reading
 
Influenza
Uchechi Wosu MD
Influenza is an acute viral illness. It has four subtypes A, B, C, and D with the first three causing disease in humans and Subtype D causing disease in pigs... Continue Reading
 
Actinic Keratoses
Dwana Shabazz, MD-MPH
Actinic Keratoses (AKs) are precancerous lesions that can develop into squamous cell carcinoma. AKs are one of the most common skin conditions that dermatologists treat. They develop because of an... Continue Reading
 
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Alex Yevtukh, MD
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition that most often happens in adulthood. It is caused by the compression of one nerve as it travels under the undersurface of the... Continue Reading
 
Rotator Cuff Tear
Alex Yevtukh, MD
The rotator cuff consists of four muscles around the shoulder that help raise and rotate the arm. The most commonly injured of these muscles is the supraspinatus and occurs in... Continue Reading
 
Jawline/Chin Deformity
Andrew Biello, MD
In facial cosmesis, the chin and jawline are some of the most pronounced and noticeable subunits of the face. Accordingly, small changes in angulation and subcutaneous fat lead to drastic... Continue Reading
 
Lip/Cheekbone Volume Loss
Andrew Biello, MD
The facial subunits and their relative proportions/symmetry encompass much of what defines subjective ideas of beauty throughout modern cultures. There are certain ideal ratios that define the cosmetically appealing lips... Continue Reading
 
Nasal Deformity
Andrew Biello, MD
Nasal deformity requiring rhinoplasty, or “nose job”, is typically divided into two broad categories. Functional rhinoplasty aims to improve breathing, while cosmetic rhinoplasty is geared towards improving the perceived structure... Continue Reading
 
Insulin-Dependent Diabetics
Uchechi Wosu MD
Insulin-dependent diabetics require the use of insulin to manage their blood sugar levels. After eating a meal, blood sugar levels rise. The pancreas then produces insulin which allows cells to... Continue Reading
 
Diabetes
Uchechi Wosu MD
Diabetes is a condition that occurs when blood sugar levels are too high as a result of the body’s inability to properly respond to sugar released from food. Insulin is... Continue Reading
 
Achilles Tendon Rupture
Mikel Tihista, MD
Achilles tendon ruptures are a common injury in elite and recreational athletes, most often occurring in men aged 30-40. Risk factors are episodic athletes (“Weekend Warriors”), active use of fluoroquinolone... Continue Reading
 
Biceps Tendonitis
Michael Eckhoff, MD
Biceps tendonitis is a common cause of shoulder pain in the front of the shoulder. It is most common in patients who perform overhead activities, whether for sport or for... Continue Reading
 
Scaphoid Lunate Advanced Collapse
Kyle Klahs, D.O
Scaphoid Lunate Advanced Collapse (SLAC wrist) is a progressive osteoarthritis caused by instability between the scaphoid and lunate carpal bones. When the ligament between those two carpal bones tears, either... Continue Reading
 
Scaphoid Fracture
Kyle Klahs, D.O
The scaphoid is the most common carpal bone to be broken in the hand and often present as tenderness to the space in between the thumb and the index finger... Continue Reading
 
Proximal Humerus Fractures
Kyle Klahs, D.O
Proximal humerus fractures in the non-geriatric, adult population occur secondary to high energy trauma. Fractures of the humeral head that result in three or four parts, when the head splints... Continue Reading
 
Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Flexion Contracture
Kyle Klahs, D.O
Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) flexion contractures are a common complication from injuries to that joint or disease processes such as Dupytren contractures. The inability to extend fingers at the PIPJ... Continue Reading
 
Superior Labral From Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Tear
John Scanaliato, MD
A superior labral tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP) tear is a specific injury to the glenoid labrum that commonly affects overhead athletes. A SLAP tear occurs to the superior... Continue Reading
 
Acetabular Labral Tear
John Scanaliato, MD
Acetabular labral tears are a common cause of athletic hip pain in adolescent and young adult populations. Often secondary to femeoracetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia, labral tears affect the... Continue Reading
 
Meniscus Tear
Austin Fares, MD
The menisci are two C shaped discs of fibrocartilage within the knee that function to cushion and stabilize the knee during everyday activities. Tears of the meniscus are one of... Continue Reading
 
Osteoarthritis Of The Hip
Tyler Nicholson MD
Osteoarthritis of the hip is a degenerative condition of the joint which causes progressive loss of articular or joint lining cartilage. The disease process occurs over many years and is... Continue Reading
 
Tri-compartmental (complete) Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Tyler Nicholson MD
Osteoarthritis of the knee is a degenerative condition of the joint which causes progressive loss of articular or joint lining cartilage. The disease process occurs over many years and is... Continue Reading
 
Partial (unicompartmental) Knee Osteoarthritis
Tyler Nicholson MD
The knee joint consists of three anatomic compartments. These include the medial (inside), lateral (outside), and anterior (front) compartments. Osteoarthritis (or simply arthritis) is a degenerative condition of the joint... Continue Reading
 
Ankle Arthritis
Hunter Graver, MD
Ankle arthritis, also called osteoarthritis of the ankle, refers to a degenerative condition of the ankle joint in which there is progressive loss of cartilage between the talus and tibia... Continue Reading
 
Shoulder Osteoarthritis
Josh Tadlock,MD
Shoulder osteoarthritis can be significant cause of pain and disability in the upper extremity. Cartilage helps allow for motion in the joints of the body, but it can be degraded... Continue Reading
 
Breast Cancer
Alex Sailon, MD
Breast cancer is a disease where cells of the breast grow abnormally. Changes in DNA, known as mutations, are responsible for transforming normal cells into cancerous ones. Breast cancer is... Continue Reading

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